WARR is the scientific working group for rocketry and space flight and was founded in 1960. Through lectures and events she tried to compensate for the absence of an aerospace engineering chair at the TU Munich.
The then student and current professor Robert Schmucker founded the AGRR (working group for rocket technology and space travel) from the continuation of a student activity. The principles of this group were the practical activity besides studying and the independent production of components. The main focus was on measurement technology and smaller solid and liquid engines.
Since WARR is still a student group dedicated to practical work, this year is considered the year of its foundation.
W. Tuzinsky started with the hybrid rocket activities. After a long search for the suitable fuel, they lay down on nitric acid as a liquid oxidizer and aminophenol / toluidine as a solid fuel. This project dealt with engine technology, fittings and valves. In addition, the burning behavior of this then new technology was examined.
As it was found that the basic interests of the two working groups were the same and that there were personal problems, the AGRR and the WARR were merged.
WARR’s first big success came with development and flight of the first German hybrid rocket “Barbarella” on March 12, 1974. The rocket can be visited today at the Deutsches Museum in Munich.
An ignition delay measuring system was developed to examine liquid fuels and their hypergolic ignition in more detail. Hypergols ignite fuels when they come into contact with each other without an additional ignition mechanism. How quickly this intrinsic ignition takes place is an important criterion in fuel selection and engine development.
The first liquid engine LM 100 is developed. A test stand and a new injection head were also built for this purpose. The cooling was simplified by a thick-walled design (capacitive "cooling") and a short burning time. The first attempts at burning in 1976 were already successful. Unfortunately, the burning attempts at the beginning of the 80s were no longer so successful and, due to their strong smoke development, showed a bad denomination.
The next major project was to use the knowledge of the LM 100 and develop a more powerful variant for rockets. The LM 500 engine was developed with regenerative cooling and a new test bench and new measurement options. Different injection heads were examined. For this purpose, they were operated with water instead of the actual fuel. It was decided to use a double-cone process.
The combustion chamber consisted of graphite and a thick-walled, thick-walled nozzle (capacitive "cooling"). Burning tests were carried out in the summer of 1984.
This year, a scientific payload was built for the OTRAG rocket research rocket in Garching. OTUMAS (OTRAG TU-Munich Air Snapper) should take air samples from a great height. This experiment was developed entirely by WARR itself. The production took place together with the TU Munich.
The payload worked perfectly at launch on September 19, only the rocket crashed because a second payload was used. Therefore the repair could only be recovered destroyed.
OTUMAS 2 was planned but never carried out because OTRAG did not launch another rocket.
After the LM 500 project was successfully completed, the successor LM 1500 was developed. In addition to regenerative cooling, this also required new main valves and its own measuring technology. The test stand was also modularized in order not to always have to build a completely new test stand. Water tests for calibration were carried out again. Further measurements were carried out in parallel at DLR Lampoldshausen.
Burning tests in 1987 in Lampoldshausen showed 0.96 kg / s, pc ≈ 19 bar, ceff ≈ 1900 m / s, ɳ = 0.95%. The cooling of the engine was too good, so the HNO3 was not warm enough. In addition, the engine was too heavy for real use.
Next, the HARRY1 high-altitude rocket was conceived, designed and constructed. Such a missile went beyond engine development and was a challenging target. You should bring a payload of 5kg to 30km height. Red-smoking nitric acid with furfuryl alcohol, approx. 0.7 kg / s, was used as fuel. With a length of 4.5m and a takeoff weight of 80kg, you had to consider both the engine, tank system and aerodynamic.
The first attempts to burn the engines for the HARRY1 were carried out in Lampoldshausen in April 1987.
1985 saw the development of an extensive computer program for design analysis: ROCKSIM.
An IBM computer for connection to the Leibniz data center was procured in 1987 to speed up the simulation. The constructions were modeled with finite element as early as 1988. The program was also converted to UNIX. In 1992 ROCKSIM was completely rewritten in C ++.
With the continuation of the engine development one wanted to improve the concept of the LM 1500 and built the film-cooled LM 1500 FC. In the run-up one tested with FA and N2O4. Kerosene and N2O4 were then planned for the main run. For this purpose, the test bench measuring technology was expanded considerably with just 60 temperature sensors on the engine.
The thin-walled film-cooled engine was designed and built with a parabolic nozzle. Prepared and carried out the burning tests in 1989 and 1990 in Lampoldshausen.
Since there was practically no ignition in 1989, the injection head was improved. However, this could not improve the measurement result because the mixture had an ignition time that was too long.
The LM 1500 series got a new variant with the LM 1500 CC, which was developed for ignition tests with MMH and N2O4.
In the course of this project, numerous new injection heads were developed. In 1990 the first attempts at ignition with FA and N2O4 were made after the campaign with LM 1500 FC was unsuccessful. However, only one of 14 burning attempts was successful here. Unfortunately, a diploma thesis from the 1960s was only found later, which shows that FA does not ignite with N2O4, since only small amounts of water cause N2O4 to react to HNO3.
However, UDMH and MMH ignite with N2O4. With MBB (Cassidian) one could carry out a burning test.
It was decided to completely restart the fuel and missile projects. The test bench was rebuilt and various fuel mixtures were weighed up. Spark ignition with ammonia or propane and nitrous oxide was also discussed. With the relocation of the LRT to Garching, the question of space for the WARR arose. You had to look for a new test site and found Grafenwoehr.
In 1997, a prototype of a G-Sim suit was developed together with the DGLR for the annual conference. A second prototype was developed in 2000 and was tested on the parabolic flight SMOFEX in 2001. The third prototype was tested on the M-Grace parabolic flight in 2002.
After a long search we found a home at the LRT chair and got our own office. In addition, the renewed cooperation was decided at the aerospace congress in Munich. The Adler I project (A Development of a Liquid Engine Rocket) was intended to demonstrate the feasibility of a liquid-powered rocket with little financial means.
The project was divided into several development phases and several different teams were formed within the student group.
Approximately 80% of the financial resources were planned for the drive.
In the case of the Adler I, the oxidizer mass was defined as a fixed parameter, since a standard CFRP tank should be used for cost reasons. A salvage system and a GPS transmitter were planned as the payload for a first mission.
After working together several times, in 2004 the decision was made to appear together with the DGLR on a joint stand at the ILA in Berlin.
With the launch of the WARR-EX1 in 2005, the design of a test rocket that could be built quickly could be verified. In 2006, further engine tests were carried out together with the Bundeswehr University. The model rocket workshop for students in the first semester was also held for the first time this year. Here, different student teams compete against each other with small model rockets.
In 2007 a new team and a new subject area were added. The Space Elevator team designs and builds space elevators. At the moment, this is only a concept, since a lift of a realistic size cannot be implemented due to the weight of the required rope. However, there is still a large community especially in Japan. There, WARR also participated in a space elevator competition in 2009.
With the launch of the xM1, WARR ushered in the new decade in 2010. The Space Elevator Team also held the first European Space Elevator Competition EuSpEC, building on the competitions in Japan.
The Chair of Space Technology launched the first Cubesat satellite with the name First-Move in 2011. The MOVE-II project then emerged from the participating student ends and doctoral students, and WARR thus once again expanded its projects with satellite technology. We were also able to celebrate 50 years. We crowned the year 2012 with the launch of the XM-2 rocket.
After the successful starts in recent years, rocket technology decided in 2013 on a new project: Cryosphere. The Hy500 Demonstrator Cryogenic Engine was ready in 2014 and the WARR-EX2 rocket was launched in 2015. They also continued to develop engines and built the Hyper2 Subscale Cryogenic Engine. The efforts culminated with the hot fire burn test of the so-called Battleship in Lampoldshausen. A fullscale engine was tested here within the STERN project.
Another team was founded within WARR in 2013: Interstellar Flight. This deals with interstellar flight in general and in particular with manned interstellar flight.
At the beginning of May 2013, the WARR Interstellar Flight Ghost team took part in the Project Icarus Concept Design Competition. The team presented their concept in the British Interplanetary Society's premises in October 2013 and was recognized among the four international teams for the best design. In October 2014, the Interstellar Flight Team began working on an interstellar spacecraft with laser sail drive for the Project Dragonfly Design Competition of the Initiative for Interstellar Studies (I4IS). In this competition too, the WARR team's design prevailed against the international competition.
Since the competition was stopped and the financial resources for own hardware construction were lacking, the activities of the Interstellar Flight Team were stopped at the end of 2014.
On April 20, 2015, WARR officially became a non-profit association WARR e.V..
In 2015 we also welcomed a new team: Hyperloop. This team is one of the best known in public. Hyperloop is a high-speed traffic system in which capsules slide in a largely evacuated tube on air cushions at almost the speed of sound. The entrepreneur Elon Musk presented the idea in August 2013. He also called for design competitions on this project for the first time in 2017. With our team we were able to take first place in the fastest pod rating in January and August 2017.
Meanwhile, satellite technology was working on its first Cubesat MOVE-II. In order to test some components in advance under conditions similar to space, we started a helium-filled high altitude balloon in September under the name MOVE-ON Hydrogen.
In 2018 we were able to welcome a new team: Exploration. The Exploration Team develops and builds Mars Rover. With these we compete in Poland at the European Mars Rover Challenge. The big goal is a real rover on Mars.
We gave away an old team: Hyperloop is now working under the name Next Prototypes e.V. due to its size.
In 2019 we also celebrated a major milestone with the rocket technology. The fluid system of the WARR-EX3 could be completely tested. The fluid system of the WARR-EX3 was completely tested with an impressive cold flow test
After a long development, our satellite MOVE-II launched in December 2018 with a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket into the Low Earth Orbit. Shortly afterwards we also got the opportunity to build MOVE-IIb. This is basically a clone of MOVE-II. It was successfully launched into orbit in July 2019 on a Soyus rocket.
The MOVE-BEYOND project was also launched in summer 2019. Now that two satellites are in orbit, we want to put our experience into our own modular Cubsat platform.
2020 marks not only the start of a new decade but also the start of a new team at WARR. The Space Labs team develops and builds an autonomous laboratory unit that should enable experiments in microgravity on the ISS.